equivalent reflectivity factor
(volcanic ash) mass concentration
X(X < 0) = -999;
X(X < 0) = X(X < 0)+360;
X=A+c, X=A-c, X=A*c, X=A/c
idx = ~isnan(data); % 非NaNのインデックスを作成（'~' は否定の意）
x = std(data(idx)); % 非NaNのみを対象に標準偏差を計算
valid_data = data(~isnan(data));
data(isnan(data)) = ;
1 Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
A short, unstructured, single paragraph summary, no more than 350 words, of the major points raised, making evident the key work highlighted in the article. Minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.
Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article. Keywords should be separated by a comma (,) and a space as shown in the following example.
Computational seismology, Crustal structure, Finite-difference method simulation, Lg wave, Regional wave, Sn wave, Wave propagation
If a keyword includes a comma, place a semicolon (;) and a space between keywords as below.
Computational seismology; Crustal structure; Lg wave; Red, white and blue; Regional wave; Sn wave; Wave propagation
This should explain the background to the article, its aims, a summary of a search of the existing literature and the issue under discussion, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.
This is a subsection in Introduction section.
The methods section should include the aim, design and setting of the study, the characteristics of participants or description of materials involved, a clear description of all processes and methodologies employed, and the type of statistical analysis used, to enable replication.
This is a subsection in Methods section.
This should include the findings of the study including, if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures.
This is a subsection in Results section.
For research articles this section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing researches and highlight limitations of the study. For methodology manuscripts this section should include a discussion of any practical or operational issues involved in performing the study and any issues not covered in other sections.
This is a subsection in Discussion section.
This should state clearly the main conclusions and include a clear explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.
CMB: Core-mantle boundary; GOSAT: Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite; JAXA: Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency; TRMM: Tropical rainfall measuring mission
All manuscripts must include an ‘Availability of data and materials’ statement. It should include information on where to find data supporting the results reported in the article.
The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) available in the [repository name] repository, [unique persistent identifier and hyperlink to dataset(s) in http:// format].
The dataset(s) supporting the conclusions of this article is(are) included within the article (and its additional file(s)).
If it is not possible to share research data publicly:
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study. Please contact author for data requests.
If your manuscript does not contain any data:
More examples of template data availability statements are available at:
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 12345678.
HK was partly funded by ABC project (ABC-123-456).
The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. The authors should be referred to by their initials.
MS proposed the topic, conceived and designed the study. HK carried out the experimental study. RT analyzed the data and helped in their interpretation. JM collaborated with the corresponding author in the construction of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader's interpretation of the article, and understand the standpoint of the author(s). This may include details about the authors' qualifications, current positions they hold at institutions or societies, or any other relevant background information. Please refer to authors using their initials. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests.
This acknowledges anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.
We thank XXXXX and YYYYY for their assistance in our experiments. We also thank ZZZZZ for the English language review. MS gratefully acknowledges the travel grant from Japan Geoscience Union to attend the ABC symposium 2015 held at Tokyo, Japan.
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Article by DOI (before issue publication and with page numbers)
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Article in electronic journal by DOI (no paginated version)
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Journal issue with issue editor
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Journal issue with no issue editor
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Complete book, authored
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Complete book, also showing a translated edition [Either edition may be listed first.]
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Chapter in a book in a series without volume titles
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Chapter in a book in a series with volume titles
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Online First chapter in a series (without a volume designation but with a DOI)
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Proceedings as a book (in a series and subseries)
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Article within conference proceedings with an editor (without a publisher)
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Article within conference proceedings without an editor (without a publisher)
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Article presented at a conference
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Writing in English